In 1950, India's total fertility rate was approximately 6 (children per woman). As by end of 2012, India ranked 136th on the United Nations Human Development Index, rating 3 to US, 55 to Russia and 101 to china which takes into account social, health, and educational conditions in a country. India's high population growth & lack of political willingness results in increasingly impoverished and sub-standard conditions for growing segments of the Indian population.
The latest UNICEF data shows that one in three malnourished children worldwide are found In India. According to 2010 data from the United Nations Development Programme, an estimated 37.2% of Indians live below the country's national poverty line. Main Causes are Lack of a market economy & over government regulation, Corruption and red tape, known as License Raj is the main cause of poverty in India.
Population projections for India anticipate that the country's population will reach 1.5 to 1.8 billion by 2050. While only the Population Reference Bureau has published projections out to 2100, they expect India's population at the close of the twenty-first century to reach 1.853 to 2.181 billion.