Earthquake hazard and Seismic zoning of India

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The Indian subcontinent has a history of devastating earthquakes. The major reason for the high frequency and intensity of the earthquakes is that India is driving into Asia at a rate of approximately 47 mm/year.Geographical statistics of India show that almost 54% of the land is vulnerable to earthquakes.

SEISMIC ACTIVE ZONE:

The design of a seismic resistant building involves the usage of seismic coefficients. For the purpose manipulating these coefficients the country is divided into FIVE zones ( as recommended in IS 1897 – 1984)
ZONE 1 Area without any damage
ZONE 2 Area with major damage ( i.e., causing damages to structures with fundamentally periods greater than 1.0 second ) earthquakes corresponding to intensities V to VI of MM scale ( MM – Modified Mercalli Intensity scale )
ZONE 3 Moderate damage corresponding to intensity VII of MM scale
ZONE 4 Major damage corresponding to intensity VII and higher of MM scale.
ZONE 5 Area determines by pro seismically of certain major fault systems.

Seismic Zone of India
According to Seismic Zone of India identified in the UEVRP,which have populations exceeding half a million in earthquake Zones III, IV, V.
Zone III :- Ahemdabad, Vadodara, Rajkot, Bhavnagar, Surat,Mumbai, Agra, Bhiwandi, nashik, Kanpur Pune, Bhubneshwar, Cuttack, Asansol, Kochi Kolkata, Varanasi, Bareilly, Lucknow, Indore, Jabalpur, Vijaywada, Dhanwad, Chennai, Coimbatore, Manglore, Kozhakode ,Trivandrum.
Zone IV :- Dehradun, New Delhi, Jamunanagar, Patna, Meerut, Jammu, Amristar, Jalandhar.
Zone V:- Guwahati and Srinagar.

Zone V is the most vulnerable to earthquakes, where historically some of the country’s most powerful shock have occurred. This region included the Andaman & Nicobar Islands, all of North-Eastern India, parts of north-western Bihar, eastern sections of Uttaranchal, the Kangra Valley in Himachal Pradesh, near the Srinagar area in Jammu & Kashmir and the Rann of Kutchh in Gujarat. Earthquakes with magnitudes in excess of 7.0 have occured in these areas, and have had intensities higher than IX. Much of India lies in Zone III, where a maximum intensity of VII can be expected. Four of the major metropolitan areas lie in Zone IV, i.e. New Delhi, Mumbai and Calcutta. Only Chennai lies in Zone II. A large section of south-central India lies in Zone I along with a section stretching from eastern Rajasthan into northern Madhya Pradesh. Some areas of Orissa, Jharkhand and Chhatisgarh also lie in Zone I.

In recent years India has been a host to many earthquakes of varying magnitude and intensity. The following table gives a detailed chronology.

33TE

EPICENTER
Lat(Deg N)      Long(Deg E)

LOCATION

MAGNITUDE

1819 June 16

  23.6                    68.6

KUTCH, GUJARAT

8.0

1869 JAN 10

  25                        93

NEAR CACHAR, ASSAM

7.5

1885 MAY 30

  34.1                    74.6

SOPOR, J&K

7.0

1897 JUN 12

  26                        91

SHILLONG PLATEAU

8.7

1905 APR 04

  32.3                    76.3

KANGRA, H.P

8.0

1918 JUL 08

  24.5                    91.0

SRIMANGAL, ASSAM

7.6

1930 JUL 02

  25.8                    90.2

DHUBRI, ASSAM

7.1

1934 JAN 15

  26.6                    86.8

BIHAR-NEPAL BORDER

8.3

1941 JUN 26

  12.4                    92.5

ANDAMAN ISLANDS

8.1

1943 OCT 23

  26.8                    94.0

ASSAM

7.4

1950 AUG 15

  28.5                    96.7

ARUNACHAL PRADESH-CHINA BORDER

8.5

1956 JUL 21

  23.3                    70.0

ANJAR, GUJARAT

7.0

1967 DEC 10

  17.37                    73.75

KOYNA, MAHARASHTRA

6.5

1975 JAN 19

  32.38                    78.49

KINNAUR, HP

6.2

1988 AUG 06

  25.13                    95.15

MANIPUR-MYANMAR BORDER

6.6

1988 AUG 21

  26.72                    86.63

BIHAR-NEPAL BORDER

6.4

1991 OCT 20

  30.75                    78.86

UTTARKASHI, UP HILLS

6.6

1993 SEP 30

  18.07                    76.62

LATUR-OSMANABAD, MAHARASHTRA

6.3

1997 MAY 22

  23.08                    80.06

JABALPUR,MP

6.0

1999 MAR 29

  30.41                    79.42

CHAMOLI DIST, UP

6.8