East Godavari is a district in Andhra Pradesh State of India. It has a total of 61 Mandals in this district. The district has an total area of 10,807 sq km. There are 19 towns and 1,374 villages in this district.
The district has an total area of 10,807 sq km., 300.44 sq km is urban and 10506.56 sq km is rural. Out of total population of East Godavari, 5,721,269 in the district, 1,313,972 are in urban area and 3,840,324 are in rural area. 354,755 households are in urban, 1,073,773 are in rural area. 958,816 literate people are in urban, 2,329,761 are in rural area.
The most spoken Language in East Godavari is Telugu.
The East Godavari average altitude (elevation) 0 to 10 meters above sealevel.
East Godavari district lies towards the Eastern part of the Godavari River (South Ganga) and is one among the coastal districts of the State. It approximately lies between 160 30' to 180 00' North latitudes and 810 30' to 820 30' East longitudes. The district is bounded by Odisha State on the North, East and South by Bay of Bengal, West by West Godavari district and North-west by Khammam district. The total area of the district is 10,807 Sq. Km and ranks 15th position contributing 3.93% areas of the State. The coastline of the district is 92 Km.
The district is elongated in the North-South direction with half of the Y. Ramavaram Mandal in the North-east projecting into Visakhapatnam district, while the South-eastern part with Mamidikuduru, Razole, Malikipuram and Sakhinetipalle Mandals projecting into West Godavari district. The Akanda Godavari River is bifurcated into Gowthami Godavari River and Vasista Godavari River at Rajahmundry Mandal as an estuary before joining the Bay of Bengal. A good number of about 16 Mandals are situated at the confluence of these two rivers. Back waters are predominant at Kakinada Bay at Thallarevu Mandal while Yanam a small French territory of Pondichery (Union territory of India) is also situated at the Southern portion of Thallarevu Mandal.
The East Godavari District is located in the North Coastal part of the Andhra Pradesh State. The Forest Area is around 29.85% of East Godavari Area. The Irrigated areas is around 61%. The Major Crops in this district are Rice, Coconuts, Bananas, Mangoes and Sugercane. Rice is constituted as 52% of total agricultural area.
The history of East Godavari district like the rest of Andhra, may be traced to the period of the Nandas. Mahapadma Nanda, the founder of the Nanda dynasty, who led expeditions and defeated several monarchs of the north and the Deccan, thus making the Nandas monarchs of a large portion of the Deccan. The subsequent history of Nanda dynasty is not known, except that, the last ruler Dhana Nanda was overthrown by Chandragupta Maurya in 322 B.C. Thus, Chandrgupta Maurya, the founder of the Mauryan dynasty assumed control over the empire which included a large portion of the Deccan. He was succeeded by his son, Bindusara (297-272 B.C.). Bindusara was succeeded to the throne by Asoka.
After the Mauryas, the district passed under the sway of the Satavahanas. The access of Hala in about 6 or 7 A.D. lasted for only one year. Though there were no events of political importance during his reign, he won for himself a niche among the great poets of all time. The rule of Gautamiputra Satakarni (62-86 A.D.), Vasishthiputra Pulumayi (86-114 A.D.) and Yajna Sri Satakarni (128-157 A.D.) is evident from the coins found during excavations. The Satavahanas appear to have ruled till the first quarter of the third century A.D. Samudrgupta, the Gupta ruler, who invaded this district in 350 A.D. came into conflict with the rulers of both Pishtapura and Avamukta. The local rulers joined the rulers of neighbouring principalities to resist the onslaughts of the Gupta ruler. However, the outcome of this united opposition is not known.
Samudragupta's invasion was followed by the rule of a line of kings belonging to Matharakula. Their rule extended roughly from 375 A.D. to 500 A.D. The earliest known ruler of the dynasty was Maharaja Saktivarman. The district passed into the hands of Vishnukundin during the rule of Vikramendravarma-I. They ruled for over two centuries from the first quarter of the 5th Century A.D. or a little earlier. The records discovered indicate that their dominion extended over Visakhapatnam, West Godavari, Krishna and Guntur, besides the present East Godavari district. Ranadurjaya, a member of the Durjaya family, ruled Pistapuram or Pithapuram as a Vassal of Vikramendravarma in recognition of his services to the State. Another Vishnukundin ruler Indrabhattaraka, defeated the rulers of Vasishtakula and re-established his authority over this region. His success was, however, short lived. The early reigns of Kalinga with the support of some petty rulers, completely routed Indrabhattaraka's army. This resulted in the Vishnukundin's power suffered a severe set-back. Indrabhattaraka was followed to the throne by a few others belonging to the same family. Madhavarama-III was the last important ruler of this family. Madhavarama-III was, however, killed in a battle. He was succeeded by his son, Manchannabhattaraka who strove hard to maintain his hold over the ancestral dominion without much success.
Later, the western Chalukya ruler of Badami Pulakesin-II, with the help of his brother Kubjavishnu, attacked Pistapura and emerged victorious. Kubjavishnu was given the newly acquired territories in the east in token of appreciation of the service rendered by him. The rulers of eastern Chalukya dynasty founded by Kubjavishnu, ruled at first from Pistapura, then from Vengi and later from Rajamahendri (Rajahmundry). Many rulers held sway over the kingdom and their history is, at times, largely a record of disputes about succession.
Chalukya Bhima-I, who ruled during 892-921 A.D., built a temple in honour of Siva at Draksharama. In the subsequent period which marked a civil war for power, Amma-I, son of Vijayaditya-IV, came out victorious and ruled the Kingdom for seven years. He was succeeded by his son Vijayaditya-V, who was ousted from power within a fortnight of his accession. He was compelled to take refuge in the fort of Pithapuram, where he founded a dynasty.
In 973 A.D. the eastern Chalukya ruler, Danarnava, was killed and Vengi was occupied by Jata Choda Bhima of Pedakallu in Kurnool district who ruled for 27 years. The two sons of Danarnava, Saktivarman-I and Vimaladitya fled from the Kingdom and took refuge in the court of the Chola King Rajaraja-I (985-1016 A.D). Kundavai, the daughter of Rajaraja was married to Vimaladitya, the younger of the two princes. Rajaraja invaded Vengi on behalf of the sons of Danarnava. In this war, Jata Choda Bhima was killed and Vengi passed into the hands of Rajaraja. This was not liked by Satyasraya, an early ruler of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani. As a result of this, Vengi became the bone of contention between the Cholas and Chalukyas of Kalyani to the west. The rule of Vijayaditya-VII, the last king of the eastern Chalukya dynasty, witnessed an invasion of the Vengi kingdom by the Chedi King of Dahala, Yasahkarnadeva in 1073 A.D. Vijayaditya-VII lost his kingdom and with his death in 1075 A.D. the eastern Chalukya dynasty came to an end.
With the accession of Rajendra under the title of Kulottunga-I, an eastern Chalukyan prince and a rival of Vijayaditya-VII, to the chola throne, this district along with the rest of the Vengi kingdom became a province of the Chola empire. These rulers were known as Chalukya-Cholas. Kulottunga-I appointed his sons Rajaraja Mummadi Choda, Vira Choda, Rajaraja Choda Ganga and Vikrama Chola, as his viceroys in Vengi. Vikrama Chola was called back to the south in the same year as the administration of the major portion of this district by Velanadu chiefs was not effective. This gave an opportunity to the western Chalukya ruler, Vikramaditya-VI to reduce the Velanadu chief to subjection. Someswara-III succeeded Vikramaditya-VI. On the Chola throne, Vikrama Chola was followed by Kulottunga-II and Rajaraja-II and Rajadhiraja in succession. During the reign of RajadhirajaII, the Velanadu rulers became more independent and entertained plans of aggressive. A major portion of the district was also ruled by a local dynasty known as Velanati Cholas. The other rulers of this dynasty were Gonka-I, Gonka-II, Kulottunga Rajendra Chola-I and Kulottunga Rajendra Chola-II (1108-1181 A.D).
The Haihayas of Kona and the eastern Chalukyas of Pithapuram took advantage of the death of Gonka-II and asserted their independence. But Kulottunga Rajendra Chola-II who succeeded Gonka-II, despatched an army headed by his minister Amritaluri Devana Preggada who defeated the Kona chief and reduced them to subjection. Subsequently, Proliya Preggada, the Commander-in-chief of Kulottunga Rajendra Chola-II conquered the eastern Chalukya princes. Kulottunga Rajendra Chola-II also came into conflict with the Kakatiya ruler Rudra. Thus, the power of Velanadu chiefs reached glorious heights and the entire coastal Andhra came under their rule.The sudden demise of Kulottunga Rajendra Chola-II in 1181 A.D. led to the outbreak of a civil war among the heirs of Kulottunga Rajendra Chola heirs for the possession of the throne. With this, the rule of Velanati Chola over this district ended.
An early ruler of Kakatiya dynasty Prola-II threw off the Imperial Yoke of the western Chalukyas of Kalyani and asserted his independence. During his reign, he was opposed by the Haihayas of Kona. Prola-II was succeeded by his son Rudra (1150-1195 A.D), who obtained the Godavari delta as a fief from the Chalukya Chola emperor Rajaraja-II and attempted to avenge the defeat of his father at the hands of Haihayas of Kona. The epigraph at Draksharama dated 1158 A.D. is an evidence of this. Rudra's authority over the Godavari delta was challenged by the Velanadu Cholas. The Velanati Chief, Julottunga Rajendra Chola-II sent an army against Rudra. The minister of Rajendra Chola-II, Devana Preggada is said to have first reduced the territory bordering the sea and established himself at Draksharama in 1163 A.D. and then advanced on the Haihayas of Kona and having defeated them, he compelled them to acknowledge the supremacy of his sovereign. However, Rudra does not seem to have left them in peaceful possession of this area. On the death of the Chalukya Chola emperor Rajaraja-II in 1172 A.D. Kulottunga Rajendra Chola-II took advantage of the break-down of the imperial power and made himself the master of the whole of the maritime region. He, however died unexpectedly and the power of the Velanadu Cholas suffered a setback.
Rudra was succeeded by his younger brother Mahadeva who died in a conflict with the Yadavas of Devagiri. His son Ganapati succeeded to the Kakatiya throne. He conquered Divi in Krishna district. Ganapati successfully sent an army to Kalinga to reduce it to subjection. The eastern Ganga ruler Aniyanka Bhima-III and his son Narasimha-I were continuously in conflict with Ganapati. Ganapati sent an army across the northern side of Godavari, where a great battle was fought and the enemy was forced to a hasty retreat. In a conflict with the Pandyas of Madura, Ganapati inflicted a crushing defeat on them and compelled their ally Kopperunjinga to acknowledge his suzerainty. As a result of this victory, the Kakatiya power remained undisturbed in the Godavari valley until the end of the reign of Ganapati.
Ganapati was succeeded by his daughter Rudramba (1259-95 A.D.). During the latter part of her reign, the whole of Godavari valley appears to have come in full under her sway and remained under her control till the end of her reign. Prataparudra ascended the throne in 1295 A.D. His reign faced many invasions by the Sultan of Delhi. In 1323 A.D. he was defeated by Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq and was sent as a prisoner to Delhi. With this, the district along with the remaining Kakatiya dominion passed into the hands of the Delhi Sultans.
Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq divided the Deccan and the south India into five provinces and entrusted the job of administration to the governors. The rule of the governors, however, became unpopular. All the Nayakas living there in formed a confederacy and Prolaya Nayaka of Musunuri family, was chosen leader of the confederates. As a result of these rebellions, Kingdoms of the Reddis of Kondaveedu, the Rayas of Vijayanagara, the Recherlas of Rachakonda, the Bahmanis of Gulbarga and that of the Musunuri chiefs of Warangal came to be established and Prolaya Nayaka became the undisputed leader of Coastal Andhra. After his death Kapaya Nayaka, a cousin of Prolaya Nayaka, succeeded him as the leader of the chiefs of the coastal tract. Kapaya Nayaka's leadership was not able to inculcate a sense of oneness amongst the chiefs, who started acting in an independent manner. Therefore, Kapaya Nayaka entrusted the administration of this region to Toyyeti Anavota Nayaka who ruled over it with Rajahmundry as his headquarters. For some time, after the death of Anavota Nayaka in 1364 A.D., Rajahmundry and the region on the eastern bank of the Godavari was without a ruler. The Manchikonda Chief, Mummadi Nayaka of Korukonda and Narasimhadeva-IV of Kalinga tried to take advantage of the disturbed political situation. Though, they succeeded in conquering this region, it did not remain in their hold for long, as the Reddi ruler, Anavota succeeded in capturing the throne. He was succeeded by Anavema Reddi (1364-86 A.D), who in turn was succeeded by Kumaragiri (1386 A.D). Kumaragiri fought many wars with the Recherlas of Rachakonda and the Kalinga rulers. He sent his general Kataya Vema along with Prince Anavota to conquer the eastern region.
This resulted in the annexation of a large tract in the north as far as Simhachalam. The newly acquired territory was annexed to the Reddi Kingdom and constituted into a separate province called the eastern Kingdom or the Rajamahendra Rajya. Prince Anavota ruled this province with Rajamahendravaram as his capital. He died a premature death around 1395 A.D and Kataya Vema, the general and brother-in-law of Kumaragiri was given Rajamahendra Rajya, in appreciation of the services rendered by him to the State. Kataya Vema's departure to Rajamahendravaram led to the seizure of the throne of Kondaveedu by force by Peda Komati Vema.
Peda Komati Vema's authority was defined by Kataya Vema. Kataya Vema was also involved in a conflict with the Eruva Chief, Annadeva Choda who managed to occupy a large portion of the Rajamahendra Rajya. He was, however, defeated and driven back by Katayavema. Later, Katayavema died in a battle with Annadeva Choda. After his death, Allada Reddi placed Kataya Vema's son Komaragiri on the throne of Rajamahendravaram and ruled the Kingdom as his regent. Komaragiri died a premature death. Allada Reddi ruled this region till his death in 1420 A.D. About 1423 A.D., the Vijayanagar ruler Devaraya-II defeated Virabhadra, who was then ruling this kingdom and reduced it to subjection. At Kondaveedu, Racha Vema succeeded Peda Komati Vema to the throne. His rule was very oppressive and, therefore, he received little support from his subjects, when the Gajapatis of Orissa and the Rayas of Vijayanagar invaded the Kingdom. Kapileswara Gajapati crushed the Reddi power and annexed the Rajamahendra Rajya to his dominion.
About this period, a dynasty of feudatory chiefs known as Virasamantas of Koppula chiefs, came into prominence. After the downfall of the Kakatiyas of Warangal, a minor dynasty known as the chiefs of Korukonda rose to power. The historical origin of this family is not known. These chiefs became strong in due course and entered into matrimonial alliance with their powerful neighbours. Mummadi Nayaka of this family was thus married to the niece of the Musunuri chief, Kapaya Nayaka. He conquered the coastal region held earlier by Toyyeti Anavota Nayaka. He is believed to have further brought under subjection the kingdoms of Panara, Kona, Kuravata and others lying on either side of the Godavari. Mummadi Nayaka lived till 1388 A.D. He had three sons who ruled for a period of 40 years and later they were reduced to submission by the Reddies of Kondaveedu and their principality was merged in the kingdom of Kondaveedu.
After the death of Kapileswara Gajapati in 1470 A.D. there was a fight between his sons Hamvira and Purushottama for succession. Hamvira succeeded in occupying the throne with the help of the Bahmanis but he could not retain it for long. Purushottama overthrew Hamvira and tried to reconquer Rajahmundry and other places. But Muhammad Shah-III led the forces to Rajahmundry. This battle, however, ended with the conclusion of peace treaty. But after the death of Muhammad Shah-III Purushottama Gajapati overran the whole of the Godavari Krishna doab and drove away the Bahmani forces as far south as Kondaveedu. Purushottama was succeeded by his son Prataparudra. The Vijayanagar monarch Krishnadevaraya invaded his kingdom and brought Rajahmundry under subjection. However, a treaty was concluded wherein Prataparudra agreed to give his daughter in marriage to Krishnadevaraya in return of the territory north of the Krishna conquered by Krishnadevaraya.
Taking advantage of the disturbed conditions, the Qutb Shahi ruler, Sultan Quli Qutb Shah, invaded the coastal region and took possession of Rajahmundry and the neighbouring kingdoms. Sultan Quli was murdered and he was succeeded to the throne by his son Jamshid Qutb Shah and then by his grandson Subhan Qutb Shah. During the reign Ibrahim Qutb Shah had to ward off challenges two chiefs 1510-1580 A.D. from Shitab Khan and Vidyadhar. The last ruler of this dynasty was Abdul Hasan Tana Shah who ruled during 1672-87 A.D. About this period, the Mughal power started spreading to the south. The district of East Godavari was then included in Golconda, which had become one of the twenty-two provinces of the Mughal Empire. The Mughal emperor Aurangazeb appointed viceroys to carry out the administration of these provinces. The viceroy of Golconda looked after the administration through military officers called Fauzdars. The Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar appointed Nizam-ul-Mulk as the viceroy of the Deccan. He was, however, replaced by Husain Ali Khan, and during the time of Muhammad Shah, Nizam-ul-Mulk invaded the Deccan, defeated and killed Mubariz Khan in the battle of Shakar Khera in 1724 and ruled the Deccan in an autonomous capacity.
Nizam-ul-Mulk's death in 1748 A.D. led to a war of succession between his son Nasir Jung and his grandson Muzaffar Jung. The French and the English took different sides each. The dispute ended with the accession of Salabat Jung, with the help of the French General Bussy. General Bussy was, however, summoned to the south by Lally, the new GovernorGeneral of the French possessions in India. As soon as he left, Ananda Raju, the new Raja of Vizianagaram, invited the English to come and occupy the Northern Circars. The tussle that ensued between the French and the English ended with the French losing all possessions in Northern Circars.
Salabath Jung was subsequently deposed by his brother Nizam Ali Khan who leased out Rajahmundry and Chicacole to Hasan Ali Khan. Lord Clive, entered into negotiations for the ceding of the Northern Circars and obtained a Firman to that effect in August 1765, but it was kept a secret till March, 1766. General Caillaud was sent to Machilipatnam to undertake military operations, if necessary. The Nizam also made brisk preparations for war. It was, however, prevented with the conclusion of a treaty whereby the English agreed to hold the Northern Circars on payment of a tribute, accepting at the same time to furnish the Nizam with some troops. This treaty was confirmed by another treaty in 1768. Hasan Ali Khan's lease expired in 1769 A.D. and Rajahmundry and Eluru came under the control of the newly constituted chief and counsil at Machilipatnam.
The Zamindars came into prominence during the period preceding the transfer of the district to the English. The Zamindars of Rampa, Peddapuram, Pithapuram, Kota and Ramachandrapuram were the important Zamindars of this region.
Mandal is the local administrative division mostly a town or city, Below is the East Godavari District Mandals list in the state of Andhra Pradesh, Mandal can be considered as sub-districts, As on the last 2011 census, East Godavari is divided into 61 Mandals.
According to 2011 Census of India, East Godavari District Mandals population, Below is the list of East Godavari Mandals househods, total population and as per male and female statistics.